|A few details of your defunct desktop would be helpful.|
The reason that your Command prompt shows your hard drive as empty is probably because a true Dos system cannot see the NT File System NTFS.
You have a burner on your defunct desktop so you have a cd/dvd reader. Ubuntu Linux like every other live cd can load an OS and run from the cd/dvd without the need to start Windows. Another live cd which may be of use for you is NTFS4DOS which is a Dos like system. Both Ubuntu Linux and NTFS4Dos have the capability of reading/writing NTFS files. They are stand-alone systems and the discs are bootable provided that the cd/dvd rom is the first boot option in bios..
But, you must have access to a system which will allow you to download the software and burn to cd/dvd, a friend or local computer club may be able to assist you, someone may be able to lend you a live cd. Another option is to buy a copy of Ubuntu Linux or NTFS4Dos which should cost less than ten dollars.
Please come back & tell us if your problem is resolved.