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I have some older messages my inbox so I tried a few things. I'll tell you what worked and what didn't so you can get a feel for what you might have to do:
I created a folder called 2012.
I then created a rule using a condition "with specific words in the message header".
The specific word I chose was 2012 and the action was to move messages to the 2012 folder.
This sort of worked. It move all messages that contained a Received entry similar to 29 Dec 2012, but it all moved any message with strings like this in the header:
The next thing I tried was editing the rule to add a leading and trailing space around 2012 like you see in the date string.
This worked much better, but it still picked up strings such as this, so even some messages that were received in 2015 were moved to the 2012 folder:
X-Mailer: Roving Constant Contact 2012 (http://www.constantcontact.com)
So, if I were you, I would try to create a list of words that narrowed down the hits that Outlook will return. Perhaps your list might include the year that the email was received but also exclude certain phrases if you know they exist.
This of course, assumes that the header includes the original received date, and not the date that shows up in the Inbox list.
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