Actually the default gateway is within the same subnet (10.40.0.1 - 10.47.255.254)
that you get from: 10.0.0.0/13
As per the following: http://ip-subnetter.com/?ip=10.0.0....
It's an odd one to pick for your gateway though, I'd have gone with 10.40.0.1 myself in case you ever have to supernet it, but hey, different strokes for different folks.
What I'm seeing are valid TCP/IP settings for an adapter that doesn't appear to be working (as per your images).
Since you appear to be getting TCP/IP settings from a DHCP server, the device itself appears to be working properly but is having some kind of software failure between the device itself and Windows. So it appears the issue could indeed be with MS's update. You might want to contact them directly and ask them about this.
It could also be a driver issue so you may want to try the following as well:
1) un/reinstall the drivers
2) un/reinstall the actual device
In both cases, I'd recommend using the manufacturer's drivers, not MS's. Try the mfg's 8.1 drivers and if they don't have those, try 8 If they don't have 8 or they don't work, try the windows 7 drivers. If you still can't get it working, contact the mfg's support people and ask them for help.
In the mean time, if you have a wired network interface, you could plug that into your router and be able to communicate.
It matters not how straight the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul.