|A 'server' just provides a 'service'. The word 'server' only means that it's a computer that serves or hosts something. |
What you're talking about is a FILE server. And there's many ways to build it. It's useful in the workplace, because all your content CAN be backed up from one spot.
i.e. - we tell people, if it's important, put it on your network drive. If not, keep it locally. Then we take backups of the server.
So, yes it allows multiple people to access the files, but it also provides a centralized location for the backup to occur FROM.
For your situation - one user - you could just backup your own files from your own computer & it'd be serving the same purpose...
The server stores all data the needs to be accessed by other computers
Depends on how it's configured. ZFS can spread a single 'file share' over multiple machines (for added space) and make it appear like it's one....so, multiple servers would be storing data...
Those computers connect "securely" to the server
Again, depends on how you configure it. If you're using Windows sharing, then by default, no, it's not a 'secure' connection at all.
The server determines who has access to what files?
No, YOU determine who has access to what files. The 'server' enforces your policy.
The server backs up data (but still confused as to where)
It backs up to...wait for it...another server offsite! It's useful because it can happen automatically (i.e.: every night), and in case of fire, a server off-site, sitting cold standby, ready to be flipped if the s--- hits the fan is very useful.
Scalable...(assuming you mean multiple servers, but why would you need that?)
Uhm, so you can support more people using your service?
Again trying to make a point here - the SERVER is just like a WAITER - they only BRING you the food. What the food is depends on what you ordered.