Solved Is subnetting done on PC client or router?

May 26, 2017 at 11:23:12
Specs: Windows 10
Hi

I'm learning about subnetting, but am not sure where subnetting is configured. Is it configured on the network card of a client (by assigning it an IP and subnet), or is it configured on a router?

If it is on the router do you need as many routers as you have subnets?

message edited by motrcycleboy


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May 27, 2017 at 05:58:44
I'll try to answer some of your questions as simply as possible. I would highly recommend you reread some introductory information on subnetting. The basic stuff, don't get too deeply into binary. Once you know the basics, the rest comes a lot easier. If you see an acronym you're not familiar with, google it. :)

Is it configured on the network card of a client (by assigning it an IP and subnet), or is it configured on a router?

This is kind of tough to answer simply. In it's simplest form a subnet is defined on the network interfaces of the computers involved. The simplest example is connecting two computes together to say, transfer files. You would need both to have IP addresses on the same subnet.
Ex:
PC-1
IP: 192.168.0.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

PC-2
IP: 192.168.0.2
SM: 255.255.255.0

Connect the two computers using a crossover cable and they would be communicating

A slightly more complex example is a small home LAN (local area network). I take an 8 port switch, plug 4 computers into it. I want them all to talk so I assign the network interfaces on each computer an IP address that is within the same subnet. Then they can all talk to each other.

Now say you have an internet connection and you want those 4 PC's to access the internet. That requires a router or gateway. Devices necessary to cross boundaries between subnets. So now (continuing my example above) I would need a SOHO router with 4 LAN ports. I plug the internet into the external port and the 4 client PC's into LAN ports. I would then define a subnet for my LAN PC's on the router I would do so using the router's DHCP server defining a scope of IP addresses to give out to clients. I would then set the client network interfaces to automatically get their TCP/IP settings from a DHCP server and they would then receive that from the router. The router would employ NAT technology to allow all client PC's to access the internet while still allowing them to communicate directly with each other over the LAN. The router's firewall would prevent external sources from accessing your LAN.


Would it be possible (in the enterprise) to move a PC that uses a specific subnet from one network point (data point) to another and it will still be on the same subnet?

Yes it is. I do this on a regular basis at work. This requires the use of VLAN's. If I have a specific VLAN defined on my network and it's on a switch in building B and I want to move a computer from an office in building A and that client is on the same VLAN, All I would have to do is plug the PC into a switch port configured with that VLAN and plug the client into it and it would work.


I guess I'm asking whether it is the network card on a client pc that has the subnet settings, or is it the network point they are plugged into?

From your use of the phrase "network point" above I suspect you mean the port on the switch. Assuming I'm guessing correctly the simple answer is, you always have to have a proper IP address on the client PC in order for it to communicate.

The only time you ever have to do any configuration on a network switch is if it's a managed switch and you're using VLAN tagging, and have multiple VLAN's on the switch.


Man, I need to enroll on a proper networking course I think

That's a good idea actually and I highly recommend you do so if you wish to get into networking. It's a lot easier with an instructor right in front of you to ask questions and who can also diagram things out for you on a board.

It matters not how straight the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul.

***William Henley***



#1
May 26, 2017 at 11:37:00

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#2
May 26, 2017 at 12:08:08
It needs configuring on every device attached to this subnet, including the router.

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#3
May 26, 2017 at 12:17:18
Cheers. I've read those but still can't decide if a) it's done on the client PC Network card or b) it's configured on the router?

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#4
May 26, 2017 at 12:20:31
Would it be possible (in the enterprise) to move a PC that uses a specific subnet from one network point (data point) to another and it will still be on the same subnet?

I guess I'm asking whether it is the network card on a client pc that has the subnet settings, or is it the network point they are plugged into?

message edited by motrcycleboy


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#5
May 26, 2017 at 13:06:05
I can't make it clearer than saying you have to configure it on every device on the subnet. What's not to understand about that?

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#6
May 26, 2017 at 13:30:55
Don't understand how network points work I guess...whether the network point has to be configured (as a device) or whether it is just a dumb socket that connects to a 'real' device that needs to be configured.

My take on it is that there is a router (network device) somewhere in the enterprise that is configured to recognise a particular subnet. The client PC also has to be configured with this subnet. This client machine can be swapped to any live network point as it will be able to communicate with the router (network device).

Man, I need to enroll on a proper networking course I think

message edited by motrcycleboy


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#7
May 26, 2017 at 16:19:57
It's not a simple two line explanation... But have a browse here:

http://www.eventhelix.com/RealtimeM...

Essentially one programmes a router to control the different areas/segments of the network. Clients (anything wishing to interface with and thus use the services of the router) must have to correct information - ip address/subnet etc. - entered into their tcp/ip settings.

Bit like the clients/users having to know (if thinking as for a telephone) which country code, then which area code, then which phone number to use... Or (thinking of surface mail) which country, then which State, Province, County Canton etc.., then which town/city/village, then the street then the number of the building...

The Zip code as used in USA, or Post code used in the Canada and the UK etc. is somewhat analogous too; in that those codes are protracted forms of a longer "routing" information (the full address) for a given building. All one really needs is that Zip or Postal Code and the actual building number on the street for a letter to arrive (at least to the building...).

When one puts that Zip/Postal Code code onto the envelope one is effectively "programming" the letter with information related to the Post Office delivery system - their router...? Using the whole address is giving it the information that it (the Post Office) needed initially when setting up the whole Zip/Post Code system - and thus the whole automated sorting system (their "router"); but afterwards isn't really essential (as above all you need fort a letter etc. is the code and building number).


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#8
May 27, 2017 at 05:58:44
✔ Best Answer
I'll try to answer some of your questions as simply as possible. I would highly recommend you reread some introductory information on subnetting. The basic stuff, don't get too deeply into binary. Once you know the basics, the rest comes a lot easier. If you see an acronym you're not familiar with, google it. :)

Is it configured on the network card of a client (by assigning it an IP and subnet), or is it configured on a router?

This is kind of tough to answer simply. In it's simplest form a subnet is defined on the network interfaces of the computers involved. The simplest example is connecting two computes together to say, transfer files. You would need both to have IP addresses on the same subnet.
Ex:
PC-1
IP: 192.168.0.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

PC-2
IP: 192.168.0.2
SM: 255.255.255.0

Connect the two computers using a crossover cable and they would be communicating

A slightly more complex example is a small home LAN (local area network). I take an 8 port switch, plug 4 computers into it. I want them all to talk so I assign the network interfaces on each computer an IP address that is within the same subnet. Then they can all talk to each other.

Now say you have an internet connection and you want those 4 PC's to access the internet. That requires a router or gateway. Devices necessary to cross boundaries between subnets. So now (continuing my example above) I would need a SOHO router with 4 LAN ports. I plug the internet into the external port and the 4 client PC's into LAN ports. I would then define a subnet for my LAN PC's on the router I would do so using the router's DHCP server defining a scope of IP addresses to give out to clients. I would then set the client network interfaces to automatically get their TCP/IP settings from a DHCP server and they would then receive that from the router. The router would employ NAT technology to allow all client PC's to access the internet while still allowing them to communicate directly with each other over the LAN. The router's firewall would prevent external sources from accessing your LAN.


Would it be possible (in the enterprise) to move a PC that uses a specific subnet from one network point (data point) to another and it will still be on the same subnet?

Yes it is. I do this on a regular basis at work. This requires the use of VLAN's. If I have a specific VLAN defined on my network and it's on a switch in building B and I want to move a computer from an office in building A and that client is on the same VLAN, All I would have to do is plug the PC into a switch port configured with that VLAN and plug the client into it and it would work.


I guess I'm asking whether it is the network card on a client pc that has the subnet settings, or is it the network point they are plugged into?

From your use of the phrase "network point" above I suspect you mean the port on the switch. Assuming I'm guessing correctly the simple answer is, you always have to have a proper IP address on the client PC in order for it to communicate.

The only time you ever have to do any configuration on a network switch is if it's a managed switch and you're using VLAN tagging, and have multiple VLAN's on the switch.


Man, I need to enroll on a proper networking course I think

That's a good idea actually and I highly recommend you do so if you wish to get into networking. It's a lot easier with an instructor right in front of you to ask questions and who can also diagram things out for you on a board.

It matters not how straight the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul.

***William Henley***


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#9
May 27, 2017 at 14:49:29
Thanks William for that really comprehensive answer. By network point I was referring to the actual RJ45 socket that the PC plugs into. If for instance one PC in an office is on a different subnet to the other PCs in the office, would it be possible to move it to the other side of the office and plug it into a different RJ45 socket and it still be on the same subnet? I'm guessing the subnet this PC is on isn't dependent on it being plugged in to a specific RJ45 socket?

message edited by motrcycleboy


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#10
May 27, 2017 at 16:45:56
That would be a question for your IT guy, network guy, or whoever knows the topological layout of the office network.

How To Ask Questions The Smart Way


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#11
May 27, 2017 at 17:55:26
Are all the devices (clients) set to a fixed IP-address (static)?
Most networks use DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) where the client is requesting the Host (router) to send an available IP addr. (from a pool of addresses), subnet, gateway & DNS server(s).

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us...


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#12
May 27, 2017 at 23:37:17
The RJ45 socket in your office is just one end of a wire. The other end is in the room where all the switches, routers, and servers are kept (or it may be in an intermediate distribution cabinet). There's another socket there, and a patch cable is used to connect it to a switch. So the final device it connects to can be changed. Indeed, it can also be used as a telephone cable rather than an ethernet cable.

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#13
May 28, 2017 at 04:57:19
By network point I was referring to the actual RJ45 socket that the PC plugs into

Those outlets in walls connect to patch panels in a closet or data center somewhere in your building. In that same closet/data center is a switch (or several switches). That cable, if it's connected, will be plugged into a port in a switch. The wall outlet itself is not configurable. It's a simple plastic and metal "keystone" RJ-45 connector with cable punched into it. The only things configurable are the network interface on your computer and the switch ports if it's a managed switch.


If for instance one PC in an office is on a different subnet to the other PCs in the office, would it be possible to move it to the other side of the office and plug it into a different RJ45 socket and it still be on the same subnet?

Assuming you mean, 'the same subnet it was on in it's original outlet in the office' the answer is, "Yes, if the network outlet you're going to be plugging it into is configured for the same subnet as the outlet it is plugged into to begin with" If you have multiple subnets in your environment there is no guarantee any outlet is configured the same as any other.

If you wish to move a PC, you need to speak to your IT people. Moving computers or plugging devices in without prior approval could get you into serious trouble. So DO NOT take matters into your own hands.

If your place of employment is like mine, that outlet will be dead anyways. It's a security risk to leave unused outlets activated. You leave yourself open to all kinds of issues. When I started in my present position they left most all ports connected to switches.


I'm guessing the subnet this PC is on isn't dependent on it being plugged in to a specific RJ45 socket?

If you have multiple subnets in your environment, there is no guarantee any outlet is on any particular subnet. Only your IT people will know for sure which is why you need to talk to them. They can answer all your questions whereas we can't because we don't know anything about your environment.

It matters not how straight the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul.

***William Henley***


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