|It could be that you have a modem actually outside or down the street too if you have very new neighborhood.|
A highspeed modem is essentially a media converter. In the case of xDSL, it converts from one pair to four (ie: 2 wire to 4 wire). In the case of cable, it converts from coax to 4 pair. The modem also does standard modulate/demodulate.
As such, the modem has to go inside the house. There are no modems down the street I'm sorry to say.
We use RJ-45 (network) ports for phones all the time where I work. An RJ-11 plug (telephone) will fit into an RJ-45 and the two wires in the middle of the RJ-45 (blue and white/blue) will match up with the two in use in a phone cable.......providing the RJ-45 has been punched correctly.
I highly recommend before you try anything else you test to see if the phones work. If you can get a phone to work, then the DSL should also work since it comes from the phone line and then goes into the modem.