|I guess the document isn't in the recycle bin?|
So the document is showing as being in the printer queue and that's the only place it now exists?
On my XP machine (it's probably the same for windows 7) the files in the queue are physically located in c:\windows\system32\spool\printers but they're formatted for the printer and won't look the same as they were originally written.
I used notepad to create a small text file and sent it to the printer, which was off, so it showed up in the queue. Then I looked at the printer folder mentioned above and saw 2 new files--fp00000.shd and fp00000.spl. I did a TYPE from command prompt for those 2 files and saw the original text in the spl file along with formatting characters.
So try opening the file showing there with your word processing software. Hopefully the original text will show and you can edit out the formatting characters. Then save and attempt a print with your new printer.
It's probably best to first save copies of the queue files before attempting to recover them. That way you'll have copies if the originals get deleted.
I didn't have time to look for a way to transfer the queue files to another printer--or if it was even possible--but if you can recover the original document then it should work out OK.