|"I just added a new PSU, a CoolerMaster Silent Pro M 850 W..."|
"My old PSU was the only item that my research indicated would not support the GPU, so I replaced it."
Good for you !
Did you unplug the case/power supply, or otherwise switch off the AC to the power supply, at ALL times when you were plugging in or unplugging the card(s) or wiring connections ?
If you didn't do that at ALL times, ATX mboards are always powered in some places, including some contacts in the slots, even when the computer is not running, as long as the power supply is receiving live AC power (and is switched on, if it has a switch) - you may have damaged the PCI-E video card and/or the PCI-E X16 slot's circuits, and/or the power supply's circuits.
E.g. I once (and only once) damaged a PCI-E X16 video card AND the PCI-E X16 slot's circuits because I absent mindedly had forgotten to do that.
The PCI-E X16 video card still worked fine in basic VGA mode at first, but it did NOT work fine after the specific drivers have been loaded for it in Windows, on any computer, and eventually it was producing video artifacts (video corruption) all the time.
The PCI-E x16 slot will not work properly with ANY video card anymore, but a PCI video card still works fine with that mboard.
I once (and only once) fried an el-cheapo PS simply by plugging in a power connector to a hard drive when the PS had live AC to it.
"....a PCI card in another slot..."
Often, installing only a PCI video card usually does NOT disable the onboard video. Try connecting a monitor to a port for the onboard video when that's the case. If that is your case, I've never encountered a bios where you can disable the onboard video by means of changing asetting in the bios, other than in abios for mboards that have a "Hybrid" video capability - see below.
DO NOT plug anything other than a PCI video card into the last PCI slot closest to the center of the mboard. That slot is forced to share it's IRQ with the video, and if you install anything other than a PCI video card in that slot, it's likely you'll have problems.
"My computer has integrated graphics, which I have attempted to disable as well as changing the BIOS setting to PCI-E as the primary graphics adapter."
In most cases, when you install a PCI-E X16 video card in the mboard, the onboard video is automatically disabled, the ram installedin the mboard is no longer shared with that, and any settings to do with sharing the ram in the bios are ignored by the bios.
However, some recent and fairly recent mboards have a "Hybrid" video feature where if you install certain specific video chipset cards, the onboard video is NOT disabled when you install the PCI-E X16 card in a slot - both video adapters work. If you install a PCI-E X 16 card that has a video chipset that is NOT compatible with that "hybird" feature, the onboard video is NOT disabled by installing a PCI-E x16 cardin a slot, and by default, the card in the slot produces no video. In that case, you have to connect a monitor to the onboard video, and go into the bios and set Primary Video or Initialize Video First or similar to PCI-E or similar, Save bios settings, and only THEN the onboard video is disabled and the PCI-E X16 card produces video.
You having set that Primary Video or Initialize Video First or similar setting to PCI-E in the bios should have enabled the card to produce video in any case, if you you remembered to Save bios bios settings.
You could try connecting a monitor to the onboard video when the PCI-E X16 card is installed, but it's likely it produces no video.
On the other hand, often, installing only a PCI video card usually does NOT disable the onboard video. Try connecting a monitor to a port for the onboard video when that's the case.
If you have access to another desktop computer, you could try the subject PCI-E X16 video card in that, and/or try your replacement PS with another PCI-E X16 card that has the extra socket on your computer, or try your replacement PS on the other computer, or try a different PS with your computer, it it has at least the minimum capacity for any PCI-E X16 card's video chipset.