|First of all, you need a subscription (account) to ADSL service through an ISP.|
You appear to have more hardware than you need, with one exception: filters for every phone outlet you intend to use for land-line phone. These filters are to allow both digital and analog being used at the same time, without interference.
Your ISP is your very best bet to get the essential information you need.
Your "TD-8840T" is a combination DSL modem and a router, described here:
TD-8840T←(click here). Reading the description/specifications might de-mystify things for you. Also, there are loads of sites with simple diagrams showing everything required...if only you use Google!