|Possibly... Do a repair install - which is not run from recovery console etc.; full details here (scroll down a little to Repair Installation).|
But first... If there are files etc. you want to be sure are safe... Access the drive via Linux on CD/DVD boot up. There several variants - Debian and Knoppix being two of the most popular... Can be found on the www as downloadable .iso file; which then burn to an optical disk and boot with that. Then copy all data etc. to external storage; and verify copies are readable/accessible before proceeding to do anything with current installation repairs/recovery.
You will likely need to re-install/re-apply service pack updates etc. afterwards; but if you do repair installation it will (or ought to) preserve all major settings, and data too. But as above wise to safeguard data first... to external media.
Be sure you scroll down to the correct section on the above link!