|If you want to nip back to the desktop while you are in Chrome (or anywhere else for that matter) just hold down the Windows Key and the D key together.|
Or did you want a desktop shortcut to Chrome?
Whatever, I see no relationship between any of this and desktop icons not opening. If shortcuts to programs are not opening try the EXE fix here (and maybe the LNK fix too):
If the above helps run your AV scans because this can be virus related. Could be worth running MalwareBytes freebie too (it often finds what AV's miss):
Always pop back and let us know the outcome - thanks