If there is nothing wrong with your system you should not be having any problems burning on a system that is only 4 years old.
If you have checked out all the things mentioned in this subject (thread) and none seem to apply to your case, there are some more things that haven't been mentioned here.
Do not install more than one burning program at a time that has a module or modules that are loaded all the time.
E.g. Nero does that.
If you do, they are likely to interfere with one another.
Older versions of burning software are known to have problems when or after IE 7 has been installed. There is no cure, other than un-installing IE 7, or keeping IE 7 and using a newer burning program version. e.g. Roxio EMC 7.5 (or 8?) or less cannot work properly; Roxio EMC 8 (or 9?) or above works fine (I know 9 and 10 work fine, and 7.5 and 7 do not; I'm not sure about 8). I don't know how that applies to Nero versions, etc., but apparently it applies to a lot of older burning software versions.
Many also report problems with older burning software versions after Windows Media Player 11 has been installed.
Roxio EMC 10 will generate lots of error messages when you try to install it if you have certain ATI chipset video capture related drivers installed - those are installed if the video card has video in capabilty, or if it's an AIW video card with a built in TV tuner, or the same may apply to TV tuner cards with ATI chipsets. You have to un-install one listing for the ATI software in Add/Remove Programs, then Roxio 10 will install, but even so I'm not 100% sure all the modules of Roxio EMC 10 work properly (the burning software does). Apparently Roxio has known about that problem for years yet has not fixed their problem - you may have the same problem with older or newer versions of EMC or other Roxio software.
If the optical drive is IDE.....
If you are using an IDE combo DVD burner drive (burns and reads both CDs and DVDs) that is capable of burning 16X or greater DVD -R or DVD +R media, it is capable of UDMA66 max data burst speeds and it MUST be connected to an 80 wire data cable in order to work properly.
If it is connected to a 40 wire data cable, or if you have it connected to an 80 wire cable but some of it's connections aren't working properly (the 40 extra wires are all or mostly extra ground wires to ensure you don't get data transfer errors at faster data speeds), then the drive will generate data errors when run at the faster burn speeds, but it may not when run at lower burn speeds.
It is common to un-intentionally damage IDE data cables, especially while removing them - the 80 wire ones are more likely to be damaged. What usually happens is the cable is ripped at either edge and the wires there are either damaged or severed, often right at a connector or under it's cable clamp there, where it's hard to see - if a wire is severed but it's ends are touching, the connection is intermittant, rather than being reliable.
Another common thing is for the data cable to be separated from the connector contacts a bit after you have removed a cable - there should be no gap between the data cable and the connector - if there is press the cable against the connector to eliminate the gap.
80 wire data cables are also easily damaged at either edge if the cable is sharply creased at a fold in the cable.
Try another data cable if in doubt.
If your optical drive is SATA....
Check your SATA data cables. The connector on each end should "latch" into the socket on the drive and on the mboard, or on the drive controller card - it should not move when you merely brush your hand against it near the socket - if it does, use another SATA data cable that does "latch", or tape the connector in place.
(There is a slight projection or bump on one side of the outside of the connector that "latches" it into the socket - it's easily broken off or damaged)
If you have reloaded Windows from scratch and have NOT loaded the main chipset drivers, it is very common for Windows to not have the proper information about the mboard's drive controllers, and in that case, burner optical drives, if they are detected as burner drives at all, may not be able to run at the max speeds they are capable of because Windows is running them in a lesser mode.
Whenever you load Windows from a regular Windows CD (or DVD) from scratch, after Setup is finished you must load the drivers for the mboard, particularly the main chipset drivers, in order for Windows to have the proper drivers for and information about your mboard hardware, including it's AGP or PCI-E, ACPI, and hard drive controller support. If you have a generic system and have the CD that came with the mboard, all the necessary drivers are on it. If you load drivers from the web, brand name system builders and mboard makers often DO NOT have the main chipset drivers listed in the downloads for your model - in that case you must go to the maker of the main chipset's web site, get the drivers, and load them.
If your burner drive is IDE
If the connection your optical drive is on is in PIO mode, try setting it to DMA if available, save settings, go back in, see if it has changed to a higher mode. e.g. DVD combo burner optical drives should be in Ultra DMA mode 4, if they are capable of 16X or greater DVD + or DVD -
If the drive won't go out of PIO mode, you need to remove some lines from the Registry, but if you haven't cured what caused the data errors (e.g. a defective data cable), Windows will immediately or in a short time insert the lines again and it will be in PIO mode again.
NOTE that if your mboard has an Intel main chipset, you may NOT see the Advanced Settings tab there in the properties for the IDE controllers. If you don't, your Intel chipset may require you install the IAA - Intel Application Accelerator. If that has been loaded, there is a Intel Application Accelerator entry in your Programs list in the Start menu, and the modes the drives are running in are shown in that.
If you don't see the Advanced Settings tab there in the properties for the IDE controllers, and you don't see the Intel Application Accelerator entry in your Programs, go to the Intel website and look up the downloads for your particular main chipset, and download and install the IAA if it is listed - your drives will not be able to run at their max speeds until that has been installed.
Look in Device Manager. If there are yellow ? marks beside any optical drive's model number, you need to remove some upperfilter and lowerfilter lines from the registry.