|Yes, it's possible a power surge could have fried some, or all, of the components on your motherboard. This is why a good quality surge protector/surge suppressor is always worth the $20 to $30 they cost. It's worth noting, most of those devices are a "one shot" deal in that, if they do indeed protect from a surge, then they've done their job and need to be replaced.|
It is unlikely your network interface was fried by a surge when there is one or more devices upstream of it and those components weren't fried. Which is to say, since it plugs into a router and the router isn't toasted off, the power surge didn't come into the interface from the router.
It's also unlikely a surge through the computer's power connection caused the network interface to fry. You'll notice I said "unlikely" and not "impossible"
Having said all that, from what you're telling me, you could very well have a problem with the device. To check, I would uninstall it from Device Manager and then reboot and let windows "find" it again and reinstall it. Check and ensure you have the most up-to-date drivers installed and see if it doesn't work. If not, then it's possible it's fried.
The good news is, if your computer has a free expansion slot, it only costs about $15 for a decent NIC (network interface card) and they're easy to install. Simply shut your PC off, unplug it, open the case, remove the cover from the exansion slot and install the card while keeping your body grounded to the frame of the case so as to avoid an electromagnetic discharge. Typically when working inside a computer, I keep my forearm in contact with the frame of the case. Always touch the frame before touching anything inside the case or pulling the new component out of the antistatic bag.
It matters not how straight the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate;
I am the captain of my soul.