|By 'on the right' do you mean that thing in the plastic bag that looks like it fits in a card-slot cover? I'm guessing it's some kind of thermostat that turns a fan on or off as it sees necessary? Yeah it's probably best to remove it since it's not something you need.|
If your computer still doesn't work--and everything is connected right--the best thing to do would be to swap in a known-working compatible power supply and see if it boots up. It doesn't seem like there should be a problem with either the motherboard or power supply given that the device seems to be innocuous.
Edit You mention the 'power swtich cable'. Why do you suspect that? You can always remove the 2-wire pigtail for the start button from the motherboard and momentarily short those 2 pins with a screwdriver tip to see if it starts. Also, motherboards don't 'discharge' in that they don't need to hold a charge in order to start up.
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