|ear phones and speakers work exactly the same way, as far as your PC is concerned. You need hardware (soundcard or onboard sound from motherboard) and drivers.|
for testing purposes, plug your headphones directly into the back of the PC, and not into the front audio ports.
since just about every motherboard manufactured in the last decade has onboard audio, you should be able to download Audio Drivers from the web. Go to your manufacturer's website (HP, Dell, etc), or if you built the PC yourself, go to the motherboard manufacturer's site (Asus, Gigabyte, MSI, etc).