|"My question is, what kind of motherboard would fit with it?"|
Try reading the specs, it tells you exactly what types of boards fit.
"I see questions asking about what "socket type" I want, and I'm not sure what that means"
If you don't know that, you're no where near ready to build your own PC.
"if I see something that says 1.33ghz Quad-Core, does that mean all 4 CPUs working together pulls together to perform at the equivalent of one CPU going at 1.33ghz? Or does that mean each CPU is going at 1.33ghz?"
Same answer as above...you're not ready. There is no crash course. There's no way we can explain everything there is to know about hardware...you have to do your homework. I suggest you do a LOT of reading.