the exact same thing was happening to me, I was cursing and about the through the freakin thing at the wall. the disc didnt work, restarting didnt work, it wasnt picking up the wireless adapter.
my solution: how it finally worked for me was when I connected the xbox directley to the wireless modem via an ethernet cable. Im completely technologically ignorant but somehow i think the wireless modem installed the same drivers that the disc does. so after i connected to the internet, updates were installed and after a couple of tries at connecting and re-connecting the adapter it finally worked.
dont give up theres still hope haha